God Particle explained in simple words

With God Particle (Higgs Boson) trending on Twitter, I wished to understand what it means. However most of the articles referring it were too complex for a non-science person. Thus I broke the definitions/explanations word-by-word to understand it better.

God Particle page of WikiPedia takes to Higgs field and thus we begin:

The Higgs field is a
hypothetical (based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence),
ubiquitous (being present everywhere at once)
quantum field (we take it up in detail)
supposedly responsible for giving particles their masses.

All quantum fields have a fundamental particle associated with them.

The particle (something that truly has no substructure) associated with the Higgs field is the Higgs boson.

Hard word in above is quantum field:

In physics, a field is a
physical quantity (that can be quantified by measurement)
associated with each point of
spacetime (we take it up in detail).

Before understanding physical quantity, we need to understand spacetime. Spacetime is the core of the above hypothesis (and also the new concept which we don't apply in classical physics).

Spacetime: is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum (in which no part or portion is distinct from adjacent parts).
Spacetime is usually interpreted with space as being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort from the spatial dimensions. From a Euclidean space perspective, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time.

In non-relativistic classical mechanics, the use of Euclidean space instead of spacetime is appropriate, as time is treated as universal and constant, being independent of the state of motion of an observer. In relativistic contexts, time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space, because the observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of gravitational fields, which can slow the passage of time.

That explains why we don't consider time (4th dimension) in the usual physics as time is treated as universal and constant. However, that thus brings a question as to whom the term "observer" is referred to and thus that takes us to the theory of relativity.

Theory of relativity by Albert Einstein:

Concepts introduced by the theories of relativity include:

Measurements of various quantities are relative to the velocities of observers. In particular, space and time can dilate. The speed of light is nonetheless invariant, the same for all observers.

This concept was particularly very new to me and this video helped me understand it better:

Re-linking it with the above definitions:
"God Particle" or Higgs Boson is the particle associated with Higgs Field.
Higgs Field is a measurement at each point of spacetime,
responsible for giving particles their mass.

What does "God Particle found" actually mean? It means that there is a prove to the above hypothesis.

P.S: If the above is "too long, didn't read" then you may see this post on how to explain Higgs Boson discovery

Pratyush Mittal @pratyush